Category Archives: Buddhism

The Three Universal Characteristics

Gautama buddha

The Three Universal Characteristics are important parts of Buddhist teachings.
Characteristics may be defined as a feature or quality belonging typically to a person, place, or thing and serving to identify them. The Three Universal Characteristics are connected with existence, and they tell us about the nature of existence.

Aicca (impermanence ) – Anicca is the belief that everything changes and that nothing stays the same.Impermanence is one of the essential doctrines or three marks of existence in Buddhism. The term expresses the Buddhist notion that all of conditioned existence, without exception, is transient, or in a constant state of flux.

Anatta (non-self or substanceless ) – Annata is the belief that there is no such thing as “self”, and that there is no immortal soul.

Dukkha ( sorrow or suffering ) – Dukkha is suffering, and Buddhists believe that suffering is caused by bad emotions such as greed or jealousy. Dukkha is the stress, dissatisfaction and suffering that is experienced by all sentient beings who are not fully enlightened.

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Moral Codes of Buddhism

Gautama buddha

Gautama Buddha (563BC-483BC) was born at Lumbini at Nepal. The origin of sorrow and suffering in human life was a thought that made him restless. He left his home and family in pursuit of the solution to this problem. He attained enlightenment or divine knowledge while he was seated in deep meditation under a tree at Gaya in Bihar, India. The tree under which Buddha attained the divine knowledge came to be known as Bodhi vriksha or the ‘Tree of enlightenment’ . Gautama Buddha delivered his first sermon at Sarnath near Varanasi, India after attaining divine knowledge.

Buddhism possesses an excellent code of morals suitable to everyone.
They are:
1)The five precepts:
not to kill,
not to steal,
not to commit adultery,
not to lie and
not to take intoxicants.

2)The four sublime states:
loving-kindness,
compassion,
appreciative joy and
equanimity.

3)The ten transcendental virtues:
generosity,
morality,
renunciation,
wisdom,
energy,
patience,
truthfulness,
resolution,
loving-kindness and
equanimity.

4)The noble eightfold path:
right understanding.
right thoughts,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness and
right concentration.

Gautama Buddha’s way to end suffering

The great Gautam Buddha

Towards the end of the Vedic period in India,the priestly class had become dominant due to the greater emphasis on rituals.This lead to the growth of superstition.At the same time the cast system had given rise to social discrimination.

This discrimination was based on individuals cast and not on his capabilities.Some castes came to be superior and other inferior.In such conditions many thinkers like Kapila,Charvak,Vardhaman Mahavir, Gautama Buddha etc. made efforts to reduce superstition. The teachings of Gautama Buddha where easy to understand and practice in day to day life.

Gautama Buddha provided answers to questions like ‘What is the nature of human life?’ and ‘Why does man have to undergo suffering?’ in the form of four noble truths.

1.Dukkha(Suffering):Human life is full of suffering.

2.Trisha(Desire):The cause of suffering is desire or craving.

3.Dukkha -nirodh:It is possible to end suffering.

4.Pratipad:The way to end of suffering.

The way shown by him to end suffering is known as astang marg or the eight fold path.The eight principles are

1.Right view

2.Right thought/concept

3.Right speech

4.Right action

5.Right livelihood

6.Right effort

7.Right memory

8.Right concentration

Panchasheel:These are the rules of conduct that are to be followed along with eight-fold path.

1.Ahimsa(Non-violence):No living thing should be hurt.

2.Satya(Truth):One should not tell lies.

3.Asteya:One should not steal.

4.Indriya Samyam:One should win control over bodily desires.

5.One should not take intoxicants.

The last words from buddha

The great Gautam Buddha

On the last days of his life the great Gautam Buddha arrived in kushinagar a small town in state uttar pradesh of india.He decided to leave his body(die) in Kushinagar then one of his fellow asked him to move to some bigger place but he repplied ”no this place is good”.
And when Buddha was about to give up his students requested him not to leave them alone.Then he showed them his body removing the cloth.His body was infected by Diseases and infection and said the following words.

These were the very last words Buddha spoke:

“Behold, O monks, this is my last advice to you. All component things in the world are changeable. They are not lasting. Work hard to gain your own salvation. Do your best.”
Then the Buddha lapsed into the Jhana stages or meditative absorption. Going from level to level, one after the other, ever deeper and deeper. Then he came out of the meditative absorption for the last time. After that he passed into Jhana a little way; and from this Jhana the Buddha passed into Nibbana leaving nothing whatever behind that can cause rebirth again in this or any other world.
The passing away of the Buddha occurred in 543 B.C. on a full-moon day in the month of May, known in the Indian calendar as Vesak.